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By Georg Ehlen
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Extra info for Transient numerical simulation of complex convection effects during solidification in casting and welding
Mobile solid is assumed to be floating with the liquid. Therefore, if a cell where shrinkage defects are forming has at least one neighbour cell without stationary solid, the formation of an internal shrinkage cavity is assumed. This is the model used in the current software. The porosity type is stored in an integer array. 19) is calculated at the beginning of each new time step. As the hydrogen porosities push the mobile phases away, the hydrogen porosity formation rate ∆ε porehydro = (ε porehydro )P − (ε porehydro ) 0P is introduced into the discretised / pressure equation as a transient term which reduces the phase fraction of the mobile phases.
The free surface model and the pressure solver get into trouble and the calculation crashes. 2 Importance of Columnar Growth Model A simulation with SSM alone, without CGM, is also not able to model the formation of deep shrinkage cavities. Fig. 11 shows a calculation with SSM and thermosolutal convection. All forming solid is considered to be mobile and sinks down with the fluid. Instead of a solid shell along all walls a sedimentation zone forms at the bottom. The free surface always remains flat, because it never contains stationary solid.
5 s for different constant MC a) +10 N m K , b) 0, c) a) –10 N m K ; grey area: Solid/liquid interval of initial composition, determined from the binary Fe-C equilibrium phase diagram. Isotherms inside and outside the weld pool have the same values as in Fig. 21. d) Solid/liquid intervals of the used alloys. 6 Applications: Simulations and experiments XXXV Marangoni convection becomes a deep V-shape for positive MC and a wide flat shape for negative MC. The diagrams in Fig. 24 show interesting details: Already small positive values of the MC have a large influence on the pool depth.