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By Lynne Eisaguirre

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4 in 1970 extended the plan to nonconstruction federal contractors. Fair Employment: Enforcement of Title VII In July 1963, in the midst of the civil rights campaign in Birmingham, Alabama, President Kennedy appeared on national television to propose a civil rights bill. The measure proposed outlawing discrimination in public accommodations, permitting a cut-off of federal funds to discriminating institutions, and expanding the equal employment opportunity committee he had established. Following Kennedy's assassination, Title VII was enacted as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, seeking to end discrimination by large private employers whether or not they had government contracts.

A few black students attended predominately white institutions; by 1954, about 1 percent of first-year students at white colleges and universities were black. Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans were legally barred from attending some public schools, and women were systematically excluded from some private and state-funded colleges, universities, and professional schools well into the 1970s. S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Even though that decision would theoretically apply to other forms of government services, it wasn't until 1955when Rosa Parks, a courageous black woman tired from a long day's work, defied the Montgomery Alabama law requiring segregation on city buses and refused to give up her seat to make room for a white manthat the country began to struggle with the real issues behind the laws.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), established by the Civil Rights Act, was charged with enforcing the antidiscrimination laws through prevention of employment discrimination and the resolution of complaints. The act was designed to compensate employees for lost wages and other employment benefits because of illegal discrimination and to encourage employers to end discrimination. Title VII was substantially strengthened in the 1972 amendments signed by President Nixon. As Supreme Court holdings concluded, the legislative history to the 1972 amendments made clear that Congress approved of race- and gender-conscious remedies that had been developed by the courts in enforcing the 1964 act.

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