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Additional info for Aerodynamics: Fundamentals of Theory, Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and Wing; Methods of Aerodynamic Calculation
Particularly. the following condition is satisl'led for an isotropic flow: F'~ x = T7'2 =~= Jt Y - V'2 z If this condition i", satisfIed for all poiJlts, the t mbulence is homogeneous and isotropic. For such turbulence, the constancy of the two-point correlation coefficient is retained with varioHs directions of the line connecting the two points in the llnid volumebeing considered. 1. 5) call be expressed in terms of the tnrbulence level f = V V~2:-V: (1. Ui) The introduction of the concept of averaged parameters or properties appreciably facilitates the investigation of tnrbulent flows.
I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing the span of the left (port) wing so as to retain a right-handed coordinate system. The latter is called a wind coordinate system. Aerodynamic calculations can be performed in a flxed or body axis coordinate system. In addition, rotation of a craft is usually investigated in this system because the relevant equations are written in body axes. In this system, rigidly fixed to a craft, the longitudinal body axis Ox is directed along the principal axis of inertia.
The isolated surface element dS of the body experiences a normal force produced by the excess pressure (p - p 00) dS and the tangential * We shall omit the word "components" below for brevity, but shall mean it and use formulas for scalar quantities. 42 Pt. I. Theory. Aerodynamics of an Airfoil and a Wing Fig. t Action of pressure and friction '(shear) forces on an elementary . area SIJ force 1: dS. The sum of the projeetions of these forces onto the x-axis ,of a wind (flight path) coordinate system is (Fig.