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By Margaret E. Keck

In Activists past Borders, Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink research one of those strain team that has been mostly missed through political analysts: networks of activists that coalesce and function throughout nationwide frontiers. Their ambitions might be foreign companies or the rules of specific states. ancient examples of such transborder alliances comprise anti-slavery and lady suffrage campaigns. long ago twenty years, transnational activism has had an important influence in human rights, specially in Latin the USA, and advocacy networks have strongly encouraged environmental politics to boot. The authors additionally research the emergence of a world crusade round violence opposed to women.

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Extra resources for Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics

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Heclo, “Issue Networks”; Jack Hayward, “The Policy Community Approach to Industrial Policy,” in Comparative Political Dynamics: Global Research Perspectives, ed. Dankwart Rustow and Kenneth Paul Erickson (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), pp. 381–407; and Howard Aldrich and David A. Whetten, “Organization-sets, Action-sets, and Networks: Making the Most of Simplicity,” in Handbook of Organizational Design, ed. Paul Nystrom and William Starbuck (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981). This organization literature has occasionally been applied to international relations.

Issues involving physical harm to vulnerable or innocent individuals appear particularly compelling. Of course, what constitutes bodily harm and who is vulnerable or innocent may be highly contested. As the early failed campaign against female circumcision shows, one person’s harm is another’s rite of passage. Still, campaigns against practices involving bodily harm to populations perceived as vulnerable or innocent are most likely to be effective transnationally. Torture and disappearance have been more tractable than some other human rights issues, and protesting torture of political prisoners more effective than protesting torture of common criminals or capital punishment.

In both cases, how the ideas and practices of transnational actors fit into domestic political contexts is key to the analysis. These cases illustrate the difficulty of frame negotiation, where networks bring together actors with different normative and political agendas. Chapter 5 looks at a comparatively new network, the international network on violence against women, and focuses especially on the negotiations of meaning that were part of the network’s emergence. Finally, in the conclusions, we turn to the question of impact: how effective have these networks been in meeting the goals they set for themselves, and what are the effects of their practices in international society?

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