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By Samuel Crowther

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When it is attached to words as a case marker it is called an instrumental or a comitative case. When it appears as a separate word, it is analyzed as a postposition or a conjunction. When it is attached to words, it undergoes A-type vowel harmony. It does not alternate and always appears as ile when it appears as a word rather than a suffix. The buffer /y/ can be dropped when there is a consonant at the end of the word. arabayla sevgiyle Ahmet’le adamla 38 araba ile sevgi ile Ahmet ile adam ile Case markers Note the use of ile with pronouns and question words.

Zeren’in yazlık evi ‘Zeren’s summer house’ [Zeren’in yazlık evi]nin bahc¸esi ‘Zeren’s summer house’s garden’ [Zeren’in yazlık evi]nin bahc¸esi]nin kapısı ‘The door of Zeren’s summer house’s garden’ [Zeren’in yazlık evi]nin bahc¸esi]nin kapısı]nın anahtarı ‘The key of the door of Zeren’s summer house’s garden’ [Zeren’in yazlık evi]nin bahc¸esi]nin kapısı]nın anahtarı]nın deli˘gi ‘The hole of the key of the door of Zeren’s summer house’s garden’ Although such chains do not have any limits and you may add as many as you would like one after another, owing to human processing capacity, you do not have very long chains in natural speech.

40 Ahmet Marmaris’e otob¨us gidiyor. ve ¸seker ic¸iyor. Seda kahveyi her zaman s¨ut ic¸iyor. Seda kahveyi her zaman fincan sinemaya gidiyorum. Yarın aks¸am kız arkadas¸ım ve sakal bir adam. Mehmet uzun boy geliyor. Mehmet bazen okula c¸ok komik bir s¸apka adam kim? 1 The genitive The genitive case marker is -(n)In. It undergoes I-type vowel harmony and appears as -ın, -in, -un, or -¨un after nouns that end in a consonant, and appears as -nın, -nin, -nun, and -n¨un after vowel-ending nouns. In the first person singular and plural pronouns it appears as -Im.

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